|NAME AND SHAME COUNTRIES THAT RECRUIT CHILD SOLDIERS
Rebel and government forces in Burundi, the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC),
Liberia and Somalia are among those named in a new report by United Nations Secretary-General
Kofi Annan that lists conflict areas where children are used as soldiers.
In addition to the four African Countries, the report lists Afghanistan as a country where
certain factions employ child soldiers. All of the 23 parties named are involved in situations
currently on the agenda of the Security Council.
The report also highlights other conflicts not on the Council's agenda -- including Colombia,
Myanmar, Nepal, Philippines, Sudan, northern Uganda and Sri Lanka -- where children are recruited
and used as combatants, as well as conflicts that have recently ended -- Angola, Kosovo, Republic
of Congo, Sierra Leone and Guinea-Bissau -- where demobilization and/or reintegration programmes
for child combatants are underway.
Mr. Annan points to "impressive gains" in the global legal regime for children, with the entry
into force this year of two landmark treaties. The Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights
of the Child on the involvement of children in armed conflict sets an age limit of 18 years for
compulsory recruitment and direct participation in hostilities, and requires States parties to raise
the minimum age for voluntary recruitment to at least 16. The Rome Statute of the International
Criminal Court classifies conscription, enlistment or use in hostilities of children below the age of
15 as a war crime in both international and internal armed conflicts.
"The entry into force of these two legal instruments strengthens the international framework for
the protection of children in situations of armed conflict," Mr. Annan writes. "The challenge today
is in ensuring their implementation on the ground."
Part of the implementation effort, the Secretary-General says, is the published list of violators,
which he calls "an important step forward in our efforts to induce compliance by parties to conflict
with international child protection obligations."